China is urging cities to shut down old coal-fired power plants, factories, and unlicensed coal mines to cut emissions of sulfur dioxide, which cause acid rain to fall on 40 percent of the country. New standards will require cities to develop pollution control programs before 2000 and some 80 percent of major industrial firms to reduce their emissions. Coal now accounts for about 75 percent of China’s energy production; the government says it plans to replace coal with cleaner fuels, including natural gas.