Japanese ingenuity may soon bring both potable water and clean energy to a number of periodically parched Pacific island nations, thanks to a new desalination technology that exploits the temperature difference between the ocean’s surface and its depths. The Republic of Palau in the western Pacific has teamed up with Japan’s Saga University to build a plant off the nation’s coast that will produce enough drinking water for all 20,000 Palau residents and generate emissions-free electricity through a process that starts by bringing cold deep-sea water up to the ocean’s surface. The system is expected to produce drinking water at a cost of less than $1 for more than 250 gallons, comparable to the cost of freshwater in nations like Japan. Saudi Arabia has joined a number of Pacific island nations in expressing interest in the technology.