Italy has declared states of environmental emergency in Venice, Milan, and Messina. Venice is beset with water pollution caused by boat traffic in its canals, while road traffic in the other two cities is producing too much air pollution. The country’s parliament may now appoint local commissioners to impose tough new anti-pollution measures, such as closing areas to boats or cars. “Extraordinary measures are needed because of the high levels of pollution,” said Federica Cingolani of the Environment Ministry. She said the states of emergency — the first ever declared by the ministry in cities — could last for as long as a year.