A version of this article originally appeared on CleanTechnica.

Utilities in the United States are shifting away from coal toward sustainability initiatives, electric vehicles, and clean technology — but uncertainty about pending regulation continues to loom large, and environmental efforts may significantly hike consumer rates.

These findings come from “Strategic Directions in the U.S. Electric Utility Industry,” a survey of more than 500 utility executives conducted by industry consulting firm Black & Veatch (B&V). The annual survey [PDF] is intended to predict how the utility industry will evolve over time.