The enormous cloud of smoke and grit that spread from the collapsing World Trade Center towers on Tuesday could lead to attacks of asthma, emphysema, and other lung diseases, even a day or two after people were exposed, doctors said yesterday. Aside from the smoke, U.S. EPA Administrator Christie Todd Whitman said the biggest environmental concern right now was asbestos that was launched into the air from the buildings. One out of the four air samples taken by the agency found significant levels of the cancer-causing material. Lucky weather patterns have reduced the threat of airborne pollution to the public, but rescue workers are still at risk.