There’s a law of economics that says more urban highways mean more traffic. We looked at a real-world examples in Portland, San Francisco, and Seattle to see if that’s the case.

Further Reading:
CityLab University: Induced Demand

Norman Garrick in Citylab

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Vox: How Highways Wrecked Urban American Cities

Congress for New Urbanism – Highways to Boulevards
https://www.cnu.org/resources/project-database?tags[182]=182Harbor Drive
https://www.cnu.org/highways-boulevards/model-cities/portlandEmbarcadero Freeway
https://www.cnu.org/what-we-do/build-great-places/embarcadero-freeway

Governor Tom McCall – Oregon Historical Society

Law of Peak Hour Expressway Congestion

“From elevated freeways to surface boulevards: neighborhood and housing price impacts in San Francisco” by Robert Cervero , et al.

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Portland State University

Impacts of Road Capacity Removal

FHWA – Interstate History
https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/50interstate.cfm
https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/interstate/faq.cfm

Case studies in Urban Freeway Removal

Seattle DataSDOT

King County Metro

Office of the Mayor

Bike counters